Download e-book for iPad: Gender and Entrepreneurship in Iran: Microenterprise and the by R. Bahramitash

By R. Bahramitash

Iran is envisioned to have the 3rd greatest casual quarter within the MENA zone a massive resource of source of revenue for lots of low-income families whose numbers are growing to be as sanctions tighten. Gender and Entrepreneurship in Iran offers perception into the function of casual networks in employment production in Iran from a gender viewpoint. Drawing upon theories of social capital, social community, and the postcolonial feminist critique of mainstream improvement, this research sheds gentle at the ways that poverty and unemployment could be tackled.

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Additional info for Gender and Entrepreneurship in Iran: Microenterprise and the Informal Sector

Sample text

2). The range of third-sector initiatives and institutions that rely solely on state funding and those that rely solely on market funding, and everything in between, is wide. Social economy is not a static or rigid set of fundamentals from which certain other third-sector type initiatives can necessarily be excluded. Social economy is a variety of social mechanisms that mix elements from market exchange, state intervention, reciprocity, and solidarity-driven collectives. Importantly, Frank Moulaert and Oana Ailenei argue that if any definition of the term is to be forged, it “must account for the many forms of social relations that exist and their embeddedness in a specific social, cultural, historical and institutional background” (Moulaert and Ailenei 2005, p.

Neoliberalism has led, it has been argued, to a decline of well-paid, full-time jobs and further has led to the rise of low-wage jobs as self-employed homeworkers/microenterprise owners due to market-oriented types The Other Women and the Other Economy 29 of employment (Castells and Portes 1989; Sassen 1997; Bahramitash and Olmsted 2012a, b). Increasingly in developing countries, many women are working as vendors, hawkers, small-store saleswomen, peddlers, as well as domestic caregivers (although the latter can hardly be called entrepreneurship), and they work without the protection of labor laws (ILO 2002a, b; Kapoor 2007).

While some significant sections of the social economy became institutionalized, other activities remained at the grassroots level but were explored and utilized in many of the cooperative movements of the 1970s (Moulaert and Ailenei 2005). The third sector is a term synonymous with others such as the social or solidarity economy; nonprofit, not-for-profit, or nonlucrative sector; and the voluntary, idealist, or alternative sector. Benoît Lévesque, Marie-Claire Malo, and Jean-Pierre Girard (1999) showed that this third sector coexisted alongside the private and public sector almost everywhere in Western and Eastern Europe and the United States.

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