By Prasad P. Godbole, Martin A. Koyle, Duncan T. Wilcox
Pediatric Urology: Surgical problems and Management,2nd version focuses a hundred% at the commonest difficulties which could ensue in the course of pediatric urologic surgical procedure, and the way top to unravel them, making sure the absolute best end result for the sufferer. in addition to being completely revised with the most recent in administration directions, fresh to this variation are a bunch of scientific case reviews highlighting real-life problems in the course of urologic surgical procedure and the guidelines and methods utilized by the health practitioner to solve concerns confronted. those might be helpful for urology trainees studying their exchange in addition to for these pre. �Read more...
Pediatric Urology: Surgical issues and Management,2nd variation focuses a hundred% at the commonest difficulties which could ensue in the course of pediatric urologic surgical procedure, and the way most sensible to solve them, making sure the very best final result for the patient.�
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Extra info for Pediatric urology : surgical complications and management
Understanding study design, 2010. pdf. 21 Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, Oxford University. Study designs. o=1039. 22 Glasziou PP, Sanders SL. Investigating causes of heterogeneity in systematic reviews. Stat Med 2002;21(11):1503–11. 23 Parker LA, Saez NG, Porta M, Hernández‐Aguado I, Lumbreras B. The impact of including different study designs in meta‐analyses of diagnostic accuracy studies. Eur J Epidemiol 2013;28(9):713–20. 24 Oxford Dictionaries. Bias. com/ us/definition/american_english/bias.
O=5987. 48 Krader CG. Pediatricians delaying referral of vesicoureteral reflux patients. Urol Times March 1, 2012. 49 Centre for Evidence‐based Medicine, Oxford University. Diagnostic accuracy studies. Diagnostic study appraisal worksheet. o=6913. 50 Centre for Evidence‐based Medicine, Oxford University. Systematic review appraisal worksheet. o=1040. 51 Braga LH, Mijovic H, Forough F, Pemberton J, DeMaria J, Lorenzo A. Antibiotic prophylaxis for urinary tract infections in antenatal hydronephrosis.
Other biases In addition, there are other sources of bias that are relevant only in certain circumstances. Some of these include : 1 Prevalence–incidence (Neyman) bias: When measurement of risk factors is selectively done on existing patients (prevalent) rather than newly‐diagnosed (incident) patients. This may distort the results. 2 Recall bias: Cases and controls may differ in the accuracy of recalling past events. 3 Confounding bias: When a non‐causal association observed between a given exposure and outcome is a result of the influence of a third variable, it is termed confounding, with the third variable termed a confounding variable.